Saturday, March 14, 2020
Plessy Vs Ferguson Free Online Research Papers Following the American Civil War, the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution abolished slavery and the 14th amendment defined citizenship, guaranteed the rights of citizens and equal protection under the law but racism was dominant in the south and social order was still to be determined. In an attempt to continue to limit the civil rights and liberties of African Americans and to ensure dominance of white supremacy, Jim Crow laws were put in place. It was the belief in the South that the requirement of equality of the Fourteenth Amendment could be met by keeping the races separate. These laws widened the racial gaps even further with the perception that the black race was inferior. The government left the racial segregation up to the individual states. Blacks were entitled to receive the same public services and accommodations as whites, but in different facilities such as schools, water fountains, restaurant seating and transportation. In 1890, Louisiana passed the Separate Car Act which required Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ railroad cars for blacks and whites. A group of black activist formed a Citizens Committee to Test the Constitutionality of the Separate Car Act along with the East Louisiana Railroad Company who wanted to terminate the Act because of the costs associated with providing Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ passenger coaches. They selected Homer Plessy for the challenge. Homer Plessy was considered an African American by the Louisiana law of 1890, since he was seven eighth white and one eighth black. Since he was considered black, he was naturally expected to sit in the designated black area on the train. On June 7, 1892, he boarded the East Louisiana Railroad and sat in the white designated area. He refused to move and was arrested. He was found guilty of violating the Separate Car Act and appealed the Supreme Court of Louisiana who upheld the previous decision. The case went to the US Supreme Court arguing that the Separate Car Act was in violation of the 13th and 14th Amendments but with an eight person majority, the US Supreme Court upheld the decision. Justice Henry Brown indicated that the Thirteenth Amendment was Ã¢â¬Å"too clear for argumentÃ¢â¬ and the Fourteenth Amendment was Ã¢â¬Å"too enforce the absolute equality of the two races before the law, but in the nature of things it could not have been intended to abolish distinctions based upon color, or to enforce social, as distinguished from political equality, or a commingling of the two races upon terms unsatisfactory to either.Ã¢â¬ Justice John Harlan was opposed to the decision and was in the opinion that the Constitution was Ã¢â¬Å"color-blind and did not tolerate classes among citizensÃ¢â¬ . He believed the ruling would stimulate aggressions and encourage the belief that state enactments would defeat the purposes of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments. The decision of the US Supreme Court to uphold the separate but equal standard gave further support for segregation for years to come. The decision was guided by prejudice and not by legal theory. It took 50 years before the position of Justice John Harlan was recognized as what should have been the correct and legal ruling. 1954 the case of Brown vs. Board of Education eliminated Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ facilities and the racial separation would no longer be tolerated. Research Papers on Plessy Vs Ferguson19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoCapital PunishmentQuebec and CanadaWhere Wild and West MeetUnreasonable Searches and SeizuresHip-Hop is ArtPETSTEL analysis of IndiaHonest Iagos Truth through DeceptionThe Hockey Game
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Defend your view of the ethical obligations of advertisers to consumers - Essay Example The above advertisement includes the facts supporting the above argument. Because of these facts, it is suggested that bottled water should not be advertised as better than the tap water, since there is no such case, as proved through the figures provided through the above advertisement. In the particular advertisement reference is made to all aspects of bottled water aiming to show that bottled water is worse than tap water; explanations are given by referring to each particular phrase used for advertising bottled water. In general, in terms of quality, bottled water cannot be characterized as better for human health compared to the tap water. The phrase that bottled water Ã¢â¬Ëis better for youÃ¢â¬â¢ as used by advertisers for promoting the specific product is not valid; this view can be based on the following facts, as presented through the particular advertisement: In accordance with the case study, bottled water is checked as of its quality just once a week Ã¢â¬â under th e existing legislation, as monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency Ã¢â¬â while the tap water is checked about 100 times a month. Moreover, it is noted that the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s municipal water systems Ã¢â¬â estimated to about 55,000 Ã¢â¬â have to pass a thorough quality test every 3 months. Through this procedure, it is ensured that the quality standards of the tap water are higher compared to the bottled water. This view has been proved in practice in the case of the Fiji bottled water. More specifically, in an advertisement of Fiji water (as included in the case study) consumers are asked to prefer Fiji just because Ã¢â¬Ëit is not bottled in ClevelandÃ¢â¬â¢ (part 2 of the case study). In the research made as of the quality for Fiji water, the above bottled water was found to include arsenic (6.3 micrograms/ liter) while in the tap water of Cleveland no such ingredient was identified. In accordance with the above, tap water can be characterized as better for c onsumers, compared to the bottled water. The advertisements based on the argument that bottled water is better for consumers compared to tap water should be rejected as invalid. Another common argument used by advertisers promoting the bottled water is that the water of this type Ã¢â¬Ësmells betterÃ¢â¬â¢; however, no such case exists, a fact, which is proved through the findings of the research provided in the advertisement. From this point of view also, the advertisement of bottled water is unethical. In the case study reference is made to a blind taste conducted in 2001 in Good Morning America regarding the taste of water; the tap water of New York gathered a percentage of 45% of the votes of the participants Ã¢â¬â compared to well known bottled water brands, such as Evian (12%) and Poland Springs (24%) (part 2 of case study). Reference is also made to another study Ã¢â¬â conducted in Yorkshire among 2800 people Ã¢â¬â where the 60% of the participants were not able to distinguish between the tap water and the bottled water brands used in the research (part 2 of the case study). The experiment conducted during an episode of the television series Penn & Teller: Bullshit, has also proved that bottled water does not have better taste than tap water. In the above experiment, tap water was served as bottled water to the customers of a restaurant; customers, thinking that it is bottled water, highlighted its exceptional taste and freshness of the bottled water, while, in fact the water
Monday, February 10, 2020
To what extent do the news media fulfill Habermas' definition of public sphere - Essay Example By saying meeting it does not necessarily mean practical meetings, but rather it refers to any forum in which citizens can be heard. This essay tries to explore the different ways in which televisions in particular promotes the idea of public sphere. Odugbemi (2008, p.15) agrees that since televisions are among the news media that visually present their news, they have been found to be the most preferred news medium. According to Habermas, public sphere is a domain in which public views and opinions are formed (Marx, 2002, p. 295). It can also be said to be an arena where people meet, share ideas regarding the public, discuss this ideas and finally come up with a public opinion. The arena can be looked at from different perspectives for instance it can be a particular place where people meet (social halls), or it can be an infrastructural communication facility through which individuals can exchange opinions (television). Habermas considers the public sphere to be a utility that prom otes participatory democracy, since democracy emphasizes on citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ right of expression. Marx (2002, p. 324) contends that good functioning of the public sphere stresses on good participatory of citizens in matters of the public like governance. Let us then make a critical analysis on the ways which televisions use to promote the public sphere, and how successful they have been. First we have to understand the fundamental role of TVs as we explore their public sphere promotional function. Odugbemi (2008, p. 33) asserts that televisionsÃ¢â¬â¢ primary function is to let people be aware of new happenings across the globe. They provide important information to all the stakeholders in particular happenings for example in times of disasters. In disaster cases, they make the public aware of such a situation, so that citizens can know what to do. Sociologically, TVs act like a Ã¢â¬Å"social glueÃ¢â¬ which brings people together by giving them similar information regardless of their geographic boundaries. In public sphere promotion, they create a means through which citizens can share their ideas (Odugbemi, 2008, p. 37). If we consider a disaster case like in cases of fire accidents, TV journalists are always punctual and ready to inform the public about what had just happened. Einwiller, Carroll and Korn (2010, p. 299) asserts that through appropriate coordination, journalists liaise with presenters in the broadcasting such news. However, the fact remains that journalists are always not present on the happening of the accidents. Then how do they get to know what had happened? This can be done through journalists questioning the people who were present during the happening. They can even put them on camera as they give their account of what had happened (Hurvitz, 2001, p. 12). Through such sharing, the public can be able to estimate the causes of the accident and the effects. Televisions are among the best agents of public sphere promotions since their ev ents can be visually examined. According to Hurvitz (2001, p. 14) televisions have also presented peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s views during public demonstrations by giving people a chance to express how they feel about a particular issue of concern. CitizensÃ¢â¬â¢ public demonstrations can be of no use if they cannot be given a chance to express themselves. Their demonstrations can
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Bus 557 Assignment Essay Ethics behavioral aspect of accounting is a special area of accounting that is developed to address such aspect of human information processing behavior, judgment quality, accounting problems created by users and providers of accounting information as well as their decision making skills. Secondly, paper will describe the organization, the accounting ethical breach and the impact to the organization related to ethical breach. Thirdly, this paper will determine how the organizational ethical issue was detected and how management failed to create an ethical environment. In some cases, some company pledged its own stock to ensure that partnerships would be able to borrow money. And when Enron stock started plummeting, the whole thing fell apart. Fourthly, this paper will analyze the accounts impacted and or accounting guidelines violated and the resulting impact to the business operation. They operated as the masterminds behind the system to defraud investors. The banks, by offering fake, illegal and not approved by regulators deals, played a significant role in helping Enron falsify company financial statements and mislead investors. Finally, the paper will discuss as a CFO which measures could have been taken to prevent this ethical breach and how each measure should be implemented in the future. First of all, there should be analysis of culture within the organization including norms of behavior, standards of conduct, values, perspective of attitudes, perceptions, there seems to be pressure to commit misconduct, communications, risks and vulnerabilities Review of Accounting Ethics Page 3 Given the corporate ethical breaches in recent times, assess whether or not you believe that the current business and regulatory environment is more conducive to ethical behavior. Provide support for your answer. Ethics behavioral aspect of accounting is a special area of accounting that is developed to address such aspect of human information processing behavior, judgment quality, accounting problems created by users and providers of accounting information as well as their decision making skills (Ponema, 2009). Existing businesses and regulatory environment is more conductive behavior because some companies and managers feel as though they can get away with it. The unpredictable increase and collapse of the Enron Company set off a long-burning fire under the American social conscience. From every crevasse and corner, voices rose demanding increased accountability, demanding tighter regulation, and demanding that the unethical be brought to justice. Clearly, in such estimation, those at fault should have been punished business. Many transformations in the business environment have taken place, including immoral conducts and the tendency for corruption. Unethical accounting behavior is also included as a consequence. (Sims, 1992). So the government has been forced to increase regulations and inspect actions taken in business, most especially after the Enron, Tyco, WorldCom and other unethical accounting scandals. As a result of the mentioned scandals, the government then passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002 providing regulatory requirements for better precision in business action, accountability and assurance of ethical accounting behavior by publicly held companies and accounting firms. According to White (2000), the total number of boards of directors who set ethical codes of conduct within organizations has increased from 41 percent in 1991 to 78 percent. Review of Accounting Ethics Page 4 According to the Wall Street Journal about 79 percent of youth in the United States do not believe in the presence of moral principles in business. There should be a business foundation, especially in accounting which should provide society with adequate information about companies and industry. Accounting is more and more involved in consulting, so it requires high ethical standards to built trust between clients and companies (White, 2000). Even if society does not believe in the honesty in any business, I think that ethics and ethical behavior are very high priorities for companies today and this is proofed by the increasing number of companies currently applying ethical codes of conducts. Codes of ethics are arrangements that are frequently used as a force to promote ethical behavior. There are many ways that a business could operate ethically. They can impose legal actions and fines. This could then remove destruction to any firmÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation, and protect and / or increase the capital of any shareholder. Paying special attention to Shareholder value, cost control, creating a competitive advantage and avoiding internal corruption would also be a help. A firmÃ¢â¬â¢s unethical behavior could also contribute to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity level being lower over time. Because of all these aspects I believe that the current business and regulatory environment is more conducive to ethical behavior. Based on your research, describe the organization, the accounting ethical breach and the impact to the organization related to ethical breach. Enron Corp. was an energy company born from a mildly innovative 1985 deal that combined two boring businesses: an Omaha-based natural-gas-pipeline company named InterNorth and a similar Texas company called Houston Natural Gas. Instead of just delivering gas to customers at a modest profit, Enron decided to use newly deregulated pipelines to match other buyers and Review of Accounting Ethics Page 5 sellers in the energy industry. Enron became a gas trader, which would be much more exciting than just building pipes and transporting gas. Moreover, Enron was managing its own employee pension funds. This should not happen because it allowed the company to use these funds for the advantage of the company only, without taking care of their employees. Besides, Enron should have a code of ethics that prohibits managers and executives from being involved in another business entity that does business with their own company. Usually, codes of ethics are voluntary, but the board of directors should set them up as the important restriction of company. According to the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics (2002), legal and regulatory structures would trigger EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s bankruptcy. Initially, Arthur Andersen LLP would provide consulting and the audited reporting services noting the financial results of their consulting activities. This occurred because it was allowed by current law and regulations imposed by the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC). I see this as fault of within the legal structure and an evident conflict of interest. Additionally, another conflict of interest occurred in Enron by hiring and paying its own auditors. It is understandable that the auditors did not issue an adverse report on the company that was paying them. The conclusion coming from this situation is that private companies should not be allowed to pay for their own auditors.. Moreover, Enron would also expand into other business areas, including water, fiber optics, newsprint, and telecommunications (Halbert T Ingulli, E. (2009). Legal structure permits managers to enter these arrangements, which constitute a conflict of interest. The managers and executives should take care of the best interest of the company and its shareholders because the law leaves them with freedom, to choose what it is the best interest of the company. There are no doubts that EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s officers did not act within the scope of their Review of Accounting Ethics Page 6 authorities. A few days before the outstanding loss of Enron was made public, workers who audited the company books for Arthur Andersen had been given an extraordinary directive to damage all audit material, except for the most basic work papers. Even if, there are no rules for how long company should keep its documents, it was illegal. (Halbert T. Ingulli, E. (2009). Determine how the organizational ethical issue was detected and how management failed to create an ethical environment. Enron Corporation is a classic example of organizational-level corruption. Halbert T Ingulli E. (2009). Enron debacle is not just the story of a company that failed; it is the story of a system that failed. And the system didnt fail through carelessness or laziness; it was corrupted. Ã¢â¬Å" According to Report of Investigation by the Special Investigative Committee of the Board of Directors of Enron Corp (2002), Enron employees involved in the partnerships were enriched, in the aggregate, by tens of millions of dollars they should never have receivedFarrow by at least $30 million, Hooper by at least $10 million, two others by $1 million each. Any of these employees, except Farrow, did not obtain the permission required by Enrons Code of Conduct of Business Affairs to own interest in the partnerships. Moreover, many Enron transactions were designed to accomplish favorable financial statement results. These examples show that EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s officers put their own interest ahead of their obligations to Enron. The company allowed chief financial officer Farrow to set up partnerships that enabled Enron to report pretty much whatever numbers it needed to keep Wall Street happy. In some cases, the company pledged its own stock to ensure that partnerships would be able to borrow money. And when Enron stock started plummeting, the whole thing fell apart. (Farrow made off with millions of dollars for himself, but his depredations played no significant role in Enrons fall. ) . When Review of Accounting Ethics Page 7 forensic accountants finally got a look at Enrons books in late 2001, they discovered that the company had been reporting incorrect numbers for at least five years. Analyze the accounts impacted and / or accounting guidelines violated and the resulting impact to the business operation. Perhaps Enron could have been somewhat successful by branching out into the commodities business creating an international, privatized water market. EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s leaders in 1998 set up a subsidiary called Azurix with a major water concession in England, but British regulators cut the firms rates-and Enrons style was significantly cramped. Azurixs expansion into Brazil also worked out badly due to local politics. Enron hid the mounting debts in an off-the-balance-sheet partnership. This became a common Enron technique and led to the kind of debt load that became unsustainable when investors lost confidence in Enrons numbers (Snider, 2006), according to Snider (2006), Farrow, the former Enron chief financial officer, said that EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s banks played important role in the corporation fraud. They operated as the masterminds behind the system to defraud investors. The banks, by offering fake, illegal and not approved by regulators deals, played a significant role in helping Enron falsify company financial statements and mislead investors. It was the banks that instructed Enron how to deal with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s significant financial challenges. If stated, dividend targets could not be met by Enron, and the company would have had to generate more cash flow to maintain its credit ratings. The banks assisted to design the fake and deceptive deals. The banks helped Enron to hide the debt which was not showing up on the books by replacing bad assets through creation shell companies. These shell companies, run by Enron executives who profited richly from them, allowed Enron to keep hundreds of millions of dollars in debt off its books. Also, loan transactions were reported as cash flow instead of debt. These finances were not shown in the financial statements. Review of Accounting Ethics Page 8 This action would lead the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stock and hurt most of investors across the country (Halbert T. Ingulli, E. (2009). As a CFO, recommend which measures could have been taken to prevent this ethical breach and how each measure should be implemented in the future. Enron was liable for the action of its agents and employees, because most taken actions, which lead Enron into bankruptcy, were taken inside the corporation. Enron officers and managers repaid the banks by access to special deals; premium payments and insider access to future beneficial transactions (Maximizing Business Performance, 2007). In order to avoid situation that took place in Enron Corp. there are some actions that should be taken within an organization. First of all, there should be analysis of culture within the organization including norms of behavior, standards of conduct, values, perspective of attitudes, perceptions, pressures to commit misconduct, communications, risks and vulnerabilities. The Code of Ethics should be complied by Board Members and Senior Executives as well as by all employees. Measures they recommend should include staff training, evaluations of compliance systems, appropriate funding and staffing of the corporate ethics office. An organization has to make sure that consulting and auditing are separated while financing auditing has its independence with integrity. Moreover, managing proper communication regarding expectations, requirements, goals and roles at all levels is significant to constitute ethical behavior within an organization. Establishing an Ethics Committee helps to focus on ethical conduct and empower employees to make decisions according to organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s values. Enron and other corporations need better financial disclosure mechanisms. The Financial Accounting Standards Board, responsible for rule making in the area, has to create regulations and standards that are more Review of Accounting Ethics Page 9 forth right and understandable to ordinary people. In addition, corporations need more responsible public servants, instead of creating more laws. We need to teach people to be responsible for what they have done, just as we have held the business people to accountability. Conclusion Since the objective of accounting is to provide relevant, timely information for user decision making, therefore, Accountants must behave in an ethical manner so that the information they provide will be trustworthy and, thus, useful for decision making. The purpose of ethics in accounting is to direct accountants to abide by the code of conduct that facilitates and encourage public confidence in their services. Ethics are moral principles that guide the conduct of individuals but unfortunately, some accountants sometimes behave in an unethical manner. These ethical violations led to fines, firings, and lawsuits. In some cases, accountants were criminally prosecuted, convicted, and sent to prison. References Snider, D. (2006, September 26). University of California, San Francisco. UC Says Farrow Implicated Banks in Enron Fraud. Retrieved April 27, 2013 from http://ucsf. edu/ stories/uc-says-farrow-implicated-banks-in-enron-fraud Halbert T Ingulli, E. (2009). Law Ethics in the Business Environment: 2010 custom edition (6th ed. ). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning White J. (2000). Ethics in Business. Retrieved April 27, 2013, from http://www. pro2net. com Sims, R. R. (1992). Journal of Business Ethics, 11: 651Ã¢â¬â662. Committee of the Board of Directors of Enron Corp. Retrieved April 27, 2013, from http://fl1. findlaw. com/news. findlaw. com/wp/docs/enron/specinv020102rpt1. pdf
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
In order to achieve and maintain the benefits of exercise, an aquatic exercise program must follow the main principles of a workout. It should begin with warm-up stretches on the pool deck, followed by an in-pool aerobic warm-up session. Then the actual conditioning activity begins, consisting of 20 to 30 minutes of vigorous "aerobic" activity. A cool-down period in the pool can end the session, although a toning period is recommended following the cool-down. The following section discusses the aquatic fitness routine in detail. Warm-up Stretches It is very important to include proper warm-up routines before each day's activity. Physiologically, the muscles need to be warmed slowly through increased circulation, and the heart rate needs to be raised gradually. Psychologically, each participant needs to begin to think about the workout and perhaps set some personal goals for the day. Warm-ups are also an important safety precaution. Cold, tight muscles are inefficient for a good workout and may tear with sudden movements. A general idea to keep in mind while structuring a warm-up routine is to try to simulate the movements of the activity to be performed in the main body of the workout. The warm-up should simulate the workout movement but should be of a much lower intensity. Because of the nature of the exercises, they should be performed before entering the pool. A good warm-up should move quickly but thoroughly from the top of the body to the bottom of the body. In lap swimming and aerobic workout, special attention should be given to these areas: shoulder complex, obliques, abdominal, groin, hamstrings, quadriceps, gastrocnemius. Aerobic Warm-up Exercises Once the participants have entered the pool, they need to slowly raise their heart rates and get their body temperatures acclimated to that of the pool. Some fun activities for a good aerobic warm-up are to walk, jog, skip, or hop back and forth the width of the pool. As further variation, participants can do front kicks or skips and hops across the pool width. Finally, long strides, called skiing, can be used across the pool width. There are several fun games, such as musical kick-board, water basketball, and tug of war, that may be appropriate for your group as an aerobic warm-up. These games should be played for approximately 5 minutes as a warm-up activity. Conditioning Activities Circuit Training: Circuit training is a conditioning activity using stations. Different activities are designated for each station to provide a relief from the monotony of lap swimming.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Historians do not always agree about how to interpret the events and people that they study; this leads to multiple explanations, which at times, are diametrically opposed to each other. As students progress into upper-level courses in the Department of History, they must move from the mastery of facts and analysis of primary sources encouraged by lower-level courses to a richer and deeper understanding of how history is written and the fact that events and ideas are open to interpretation. Within History 420 (Readings in History), students then move into another level of explanation, where they read intensively on a topic and provide their own historiographical explanations for a series of events/ideas. Therefore, historiography can be described as Ã¢â¬Å"the history of history.Ã¢â¬ What this means in practice is an exploration of a specific topic, and how historians have explained events or people over time, i.e. how their explanations have changed due to their own worldview and/or ideological bent, due to re-interpretation of previously-viewed sources, due to the availability of new sources, previously unexplored, and/or due to the application of different questions and/or methodologies to sources. Revision of prior interpretations of the past is an implicit and important element of historiography. It requires students to not only be able to explain the different schools of thought or interpretations but also potentially to develop their own explanations, based on their assigned readings. The focus of a historiographical essay is not on the event or person itself; rather, it is on the interpretations of the event or person. Process: 1. Read and analyze multiple works independently on the same topic (assigned on weekly or bi-weekly basis), including an exploration of the sources that the authors utilize or do not utilize in shaping their arguments. a. Make sure that you are not merely summarizing the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas; rather, you are providing analysis of the workÃ¢â¬â¢s argument, sources, and conclusions and of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s own interpretation of said topic. b. In addition, each author is likely to provide an explanation of the fit of his/her work within the larger historiographical context; take careful note of this as well, particularly when he/she references other assigned works. c. Another element of this process is to have a firm understanding of who the author is; be certain to conduct research into previous publications, ideological background and/or current research interests. Are there any parts of his/her background that are directly related to the subject matter and if so, what are the pr os and cons of this? 2. Questions to consider as you write your historiographical essay: Individual Works Ã¢â¬ ¢ What is the Ã¢â¬Å"main pointÃ¢â¬ or argument made by each work regarding your specific topic? Think particularly about whether or not the author is trying to reinforce an earlier perception of history or argue for a re-interpretation of the past. Ã¢â¬ ¢ What kinds of sources are used, how and why? How does the author deal with counter-evidence, i.e. information that seems to weaken or contradict the thesis? Ã¢â¬ ¢ What are the strengths and weaknesses in terms of argument, analysis and conclusions of the work? Ã¢â¬ ¢ How does this work relate to earlier readings, i.e. do they present similar or dissimilar ideas and how/why? Ã¢â¬ ¢ How do these authors or works, as a group, contribute our understanding of this series of historical events and their outcome? 3. Bring these works together in an integrated analysis that incorporates and explains the different arguments, conclusions and evidence of various authors in order to build your own explanation of a central theme. An integrated analysis is one that not only draws on different books/articles but also explains how the works agree and disagree with each other. A particularly strong historiographical essay will do this by considering multiple points of view within discussion of a sub-topic, all in one well-crafted paragraph or series of paragraphs, which is then connected back to the overall argument. Then you would move on to the next connected sub-topic, again linking back to the overall argument. You want to avoid the temptation to simply discuss one work, then the next, and then another, with little explanation or analysis of how they fit together. 4. Questions to consider as you write your historiographical essay: The Big Picture Ã¢â¬ ¢ How has the historiography of your topic evolved over time? What has changed in terms of interpretation of events and ideas? What was the initial interpretation of this event, idea or person? How has it changed and why? Ã¢â¬ ¢ How have ideological shifts had an impact on your topic? Are the authors under study wedded to a particular Ã¢â¬Å"historical schoolÃ¢â¬ i.e. Marxist, Feminist, Neo-Conservative, Liberal, and/or how does the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s main lens of analysis (cultural, political, military, social, etc.) have an impact on his/her interpretations? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Have the Ã¢â¬Å"discoveryÃ¢â¬ or re-interpretation of sources caused historians to ask new questions or take their research in new directions? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Have historians used different methodological approaches (e.g. quantitative, linguistic) in their work and how was this had an impact on conclusions?
Monday, January 6, 2020
More than likely, a good majority of people have heard about euthanasia at least once in their existence. For those out there who have been living under a rock their entire lives, euthanasia Ã¢â¬Å"is generally understood to mean the bringing about of a good death Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Ëmercy killingÃ¢â¬â¢, where one person, Ã¢â¬ËAÃ¢â¬â¢, ends the life of another person, Ã¢â¬ËBÃ¢â¬â¢, for the sake of Ã¢â¬ËBÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã¢â¬ (Kuhse 294). There are people who believe this is a completely logical scenario that should be allowed, and there are others that oppose this view. For the purpose of this essay, I will be defending those who are for euthanasia. My thesis, just by looking at this issue from a logical standpoint, is that if someone is suffering, I believe they should be allowed the right to end theirÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦If we can justify the utilitarian view on euthanasia for our beloved animals, then it is morally permissible for our beloved family members. For the K antian argument for euthanasia, I will be using his Ã¢â¬ËCategorical ImperativeÃ¢â¬â¢, which states that you Ã¢â¬Å"Act only on the maxim through which you can at the same time will that it be a universal law.Ã¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Neill 177). KantÃ¢â¬â¢s ethics are based on the intention to act out of duty and are highly centered on the categorical imperative. A doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s duty is to save lives, but does that necessarily mean keeping one from dying? For someone who is brain-dead, or dying from the final stages of cancer, is keeping them alive actually saving their life, or prolonging their pain and misery which will end up killing them? Not allowing them to die is inflicting more harm on the patient, which does not comply with the duty of a doctor. When a patient is suffering as stated before, it is the duty of the doctor to either comply with their request for a lethal injection, or comply with the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s request for someone that is in a vegetative state. My opponen tÃ¢â¬â¢s objection to this is that by the doctor carrying out the process of euthanasia, he would be violating his duty to save lives. Following this, every time a patient that is in pain and is dying comes before him, he would have to perform euthanasia on every single patient according to the categorical imperative. When these twoShow MoreRelatedEuthanasia Often Surfaces In Mainstream News As Being A1238 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEuthanasia often surfaces in mainstream news as being a highly controversial issue, with strong arguments for both positions. To be clear, euthanasia can be defined as the following, Ã¢â¬Å"Intentionally taking the life of a presumably hopeless personÃ¢â¬ (Gay-Williams, 781). There are also several other distinctions that classify euthanasia as either active or passive, based on the level of action involved, or as voluntary, involuntary, or non-voluntary, based on the level of consent (Dittmer). However,Read MoreActive Euthanasia Pros and Cons Essay1640 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAbstract Euthanasia is a long debated topic, going back for decades in our country alone. Both sides of the topic have valid points morally and ethically. The Netherlands have had euthanasia laws in effect since 1973. America has very few states with legislation on the books: Oregon enacted in 1997, Washington 2008. Germany experimented with Active Euthanasia in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s, resulting in one of the most horrendous genocides in the past millennium. No where else do we have a cohort more at riskRead MoreEuthanasia: a Fatal Decision Essay742 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesreceiving, his own extermination. In his article, In Defense of Voluntary Euthanasia, Hook argues that euthanasia provides an easy way to end suffering. Examining the pros and cons of euthanasia and its usefulness if legalized, it is clear that there are very few benefits involved. When death is made a legal and easy option, it is an attempt to take full control of life and, by doing so, opening the door to more abuse than be nefits. Euthanasia is the practice of putting to death persons who haveRead MoreEuthanasia Is Morally Permissible?973 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Euthanasia means the painless killing of patients suffering from an incurable and painful diseases or in an irreversible coma, it is also known as Ã¢â¬Å"assisted suicideÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Ëmercy killingÃ¢â¬â¢. James Rachel asks a very interesting question to the reader. He asks if active euthanasia is morally permissible? Je has an affirmative stance and defends the idea and brings it one step forward to say that there is nor should there be any difference between active and passive euthanasia. Rachel creates a distinctionRead MoreEuthanasia Is Morally Right Or Wrong?1740 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdispensable, we will have crossed a rubiconÃ¢â¬ (unknown) Currently, there is many conflicting opinions of whether euthanasia is morally right or wrong in society. This act of euthanasia is used on patients to end their suffering of terminal illnesses. It is sometimes requested but also, being that there is multiple types such as voluntary, involuntary, Nonvoluntary, active, and passive euthanasia, in some cases is given without the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s actual request and consent. In some ways, it has seemed to becomeRead MoreEuthanasia Essay1375 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Euthanasia, People should be able to take there own lives nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The beliefs and views of our country are hypocritical and unjust. As we grow from a young child to a mature adult, we are taught many things such as that killing another human being is wrong, it is against the law and goes against most peoples religious beliefs. Yet, there are some instances when this rule does not seem to apply. If someone kills another in self-defense itRead MoreEuthanasi The Complex Role Of The Physician With Physician Assisted Suicide1702 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof this thesis is to introduce euthanasia, the complex role of the physician with physician-assisted suicide (PAS) under the argument that it is not an issue of passive or active. Nor right or wrong. Euthanasia is defined as the act or practice of killing or allowing someone to die on grounds of mercy (Morally Disputed Issues: A Reader, 341). In its complexion euthanasia is not merely a dead or alive decision as it truly is at its core goal. There is passive euthanasia which is defined as withholdingRead MoreSuffering and Voluntary Euthanasia Essay827 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescontroversial issue of Euthanasia or assisted suicide has been widely argued over many years and present. Euthanasia literally means dying without suffering. Recently, a law of euthanasia has been legalized and made in the state of Oregon. There are people who agree the law of euthanasia, even though the re are also people who strongly oppose it. The following articles examine questions and answers about issues on euthanasia or assisted suicide. The articles are Ã¢â¬Å"In Defense of Voluntary EuthanasiaÃ¢â¬ by SidneyRead MoreShould Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide Be Legalized?825 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJames Alexander November 27 2011 PHI-105 Professor Sanejo Leonard Should Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide be Legalized? Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide should become legal in the United States and all US territories. Though Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide are not the same and are separate acts, they both serve the same purpose, which is to follow the desire of a person with terminal illness to end their life without legal consequences. This same right should extend to family members and guardiansRead MoreDefending Euthanasia Essay1034 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand co-edited a number of books and newspaper articles opposing the use of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide and who also is the Samuel Gale Professor of Law, Professor in the Faculty of Medicine, and Founding Director of the Centre for Medicine, Ethics, and Law at McGill University, Montreal, wrote the internet article titled Ã¢â¬Å"Against Euthanasia.Ã¢â¬ In the article Somerville blatantly states that any type of euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide is completely and totally wrong under all circumstances