Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Defining Historiography Essay

Historians do not always agree about how to interpret the events and people that they study; this leads to multiple explanations, which at times, are diametrically opposed to each other. As students progress into upper-level courses in the Department of History, they must move from the mastery of facts and analysis of primary sources encouraged by lower-level courses to a richer and deeper understanding of how history is written and the fact that events and ideas are open to interpretation. Within History 420 (Readings in History), students then move into another level of explanation, where they read intensively on a topic and provide their own historiographical explanations for a series of events/ideas. Therefore, historiography can be described as â€Å"the history of history.† What this means in practice is an exploration of a specific topic, and how historians have explained events or people over time, i.e. how their explanations have changed due to their own worldview and/or ideological bent, due to re-interpretation of previously-viewed sources, due to the availability of new sources, previously unexplored, and/or due to the application of different questions and/or methodologies to sources. Revision of prior interpretations of the past is an implicit and important element of historiography. It requires students to not only be able to explain the different schools of thought or interpretations but also potentially to develop their own explanations, based on their assigned readings. The focus of a historiographical essay is not on the event or person itself; rather, it is on the interpretations of the event or person. Process: 1. Read and analyze multiple works independently on the same topic (assigned on weekly or bi-weekly basis), including an exploration of the sources that the authors utilize or do not utilize in shaping their arguments. a. Make sure that you are not merely summarizing the author’s ideas; rather, you are providing analysis of the work’s argument, sources, and conclusions and of the author’s own interpretation of said topic. b. In addition, each author is likely to provide an explanation of the fit of his/her work within the larger historiographical context; take careful note of this as well, particularly when he/she references other assigned works. c. Another element of this process is to have a firm understanding of who the author is; be certain to conduct research into previous publications, ideological background and/or current research interests. Are there any parts of his/her background that are directly related to the subject matter and if so, what are the pr os and cons of this? 2. Questions to consider as you write your historiographical essay: Individual Works †¢ What is the â€Å"main point† or argument made by each work regarding your specific topic? Think particularly about whether or not the author is trying to reinforce an earlier perception of history or argue for a re-interpretation of the past. †¢ What kinds of sources are used, how and why? How does the author deal with counter-evidence, i.e. information that seems to weaken or contradict the thesis? †¢ What are the strengths and weaknesses in terms of argument, analysis and conclusions of the work? †¢ How does this work relate to earlier readings, i.e. do they present similar or dissimilar ideas and how/why? †¢ How do these authors or works, as a group, contribute our understanding of this series of historical events and their outcome? 3. Bring these works together in an integrated analysis that incorporates and explains the different arguments, conclusions and evidence of various authors in order to build your own explanation of a central theme. An integrated analysis is one that not only draws on different books/articles but also explains how the works agree and disagree with each other. A particularly strong historiographical essay will do this by considering multiple points of view within discussion of a sub-topic, all in one well-crafted paragraph or series of paragraphs, which is then connected back to the overall argument. Then you would move on to the next connected sub-topic, again linking back to the overall argument. You want to avoid the temptation to simply discuss one work, then the next, and then another, with little explanation or analysis of how they fit together. 4. Questions to consider as you write your historiographical essay: The Big Picture †¢ How has the historiography of your topic evolved over time? What has changed in terms of interpretation of events and ideas? What was the initial interpretation of this event, idea or person? How has it changed and why? †¢ How have ideological shifts had an impact on your topic? Are the authors under study wedded to a particular â€Å"historical school† i.e. Marxist, Feminist, Neo-Conservative, Liberal, and/or how does the author’s main lens of analysis (cultural, political, military, social, etc.) have an impact on his/her interpretations? †¢ Have the â€Å"discovery† or re-interpretation of sources caused historians to ask new questions or take their research in new directions? †¢ Have historians used different methodological approaches (e.g. quantitative, linguistic) in their work and how was this had an impact on conclusions?

Monday, January 6, 2020

A Defense of Euthanasia - 1265 Words

More than likely, a good majority of people have heard about euthanasia at least once in their existence. For those out there who have been living under a rock their entire lives, euthanasia â€Å"is generally understood to mean the bringing about of a good death – ‘mercy killing’, where one person, ‘A’, ends the life of another person, ‘B’, for the sake of ‘B’.† (Kuhse 294). There are people who believe this is a completely logical scenario that should be allowed, and there are others that oppose this view. For the purpose of this essay, I will be defending those who are for euthanasia. My thesis, just by looking at this issue from a logical standpoint, is that if someone is suffering, I believe they should be allowed the right to end their†¦show more content†¦If we can justify the utilitarian view on euthanasia for our beloved animals, then it is morally permissible for our beloved family members. For the K antian argument for euthanasia, I will be using his ‘Categorical Imperative’, which states that you â€Å"Act only on the maxim through which you can at the same time will that it be a universal law.† (O’Neill 177). Kant’s ethics are based on the intention to act out of duty and are highly centered on the categorical imperative. A doctor’s duty is to save lives, but does that necessarily mean keeping one from dying? For someone who is brain-dead, or dying from the final stages of cancer, is keeping them alive actually saving their life, or prolonging their pain and misery which will end up killing them? Not allowing them to die is inflicting more harm on the patient, which does not comply with the duty of a doctor. When a patient is suffering as stated before, it is the duty of the doctor to either comply with their request for a lethal injection, or comply with the family’s request for someone that is in a vegetative state. My opponen t’s objection to this is that by the doctor carrying out the process of euthanasia, he would be violating his duty to save lives. Following this, every time a patient that is in pain and is dying comes before him, he would have to perform euthanasia on every single patient according to the categorical imperative. When these twoShow MoreRelatedEuthanasia Often Surfaces In Mainstream News As Being A1238 Words   |  5 PagesEuthanasia often surfaces in mainstream news as being a highly controversial issue, with strong arguments for both positions. To be clear, euthanasia can be defined as the following, â€Å"Intentionally taking the life of a presumably hopeless person† (Gay-Williams, 781). There are also several other distinctions that classify euthanasia as either active or passive, based on the level of action involved, or as voluntary, involuntary, or non-voluntary, based on the level of consent (Dittmer). However,Read MoreActive Euthanasia Pros and Cons Essay1640 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract Euthanasia is a long debated topic, going back for decades in our country alone. Both sides of the topic have valid points morally and ethically. The Netherlands have had euthanasia laws in effect since 1973. America has very few states with legislation on the books: Oregon enacted in 1997, Washington 2008. Germany experimented with Active Euthanasia in the 1930’s, resulting in one of the most horrendous genocides in the past millennium. No where else do we have a cohort more at riskRead MoreEuthanasia: a Fatal Decision Essay742 Words   |  3 Pagesreceiving, his own extermination. In his article, In Defense of Voluntary Euthanasia, Hook argues that euthanasia provides an easy way to end suffering. Examining the pros and cons of euthanasia and its usefulness if legalized, it is clear that there are very few benefits involved. When death is made a legal and easy option, it is an attempt to take full control of life and, by doing so, opening the door to more abuse than be nefits. Euthanasia is the practice of putting to death persons who haveRead MoreEuthanasia Is Morally Permissible?973 Words   |  4 Pages Euthanasia means the painless killing of patients suffering from an incurable and painful diseases or in an irreversible coma, it is also known as â€Å"assisted suicide† or ‘mercy killing’. James Rachel asks a very interesting question to the reader. He asks if active euthanasia is morally permissible? Je has an affirmative stance and defends the idea and brings it one step forward to say that there is nor should there be any difference between active and passive euthanasia. Rachel creates a distinctionRead MoreEuthanasia Is Morally Right Or Wrong?1740 Words   |  7 Pagesdispensable, we will have crossed a rubicon† (unknown) Currently, there is many conflicting opinions of whether euthanasia is morally right or wrong in society. This act of euthanasia is used on patients to end their suffering of terminal illnesses. It is sometimes requested but also, being that there is multiple types such as voluntary, involuntary, Nonvoluntary, active, and passive euthanasia, in some cases is given without the patient’s actual request and consent. In some ways, it has seemed to becomeRead MoreEuthanasia Essay1375 Words   |  6 Pages Euthanasia, People should be able to take there own lives nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The beliefs and views of our country are hypocritical and unjust. As we grow from a young child to a mature adult, we are taught many things such as that killing another human being is wrong, it is against the law and goes against most peoples religious beliefs. Yet, there are some instances when this rule does not seem to apply. If someone kills another in self-defense itRead MoreEuthanasi The Complex Role Of The Physician With Physician Assisted Suicide1702 Words   |  7 Pagesof this thesis is to introduce euthanasia, the complex role of the physician with physician-assisted suicide (PAS) under the argument that it is not an issue of passive or active. Nor right or wrong. Euthanasia is defined as the act or practice of killing or allowing someone to die on grounds of mercy (Morally Disputed Issues: A Reader, 341). In its complexion euthanasia is not merely a dead or alive decision as it truly is at its core goal. There is passive euthanasia which is defined as withholdingRead MoreSuffering and Voluntary Euthanasia Essay827 Words   |  4 Pagescontroversial issue of Euthanasia or assisted suicide has been widely argued over many years and present. Euthanasia literally means dying without suffering. Recently, a law of euthanasia has been legalized and made in the state of Oregon. There are people who agree the law of euthanasia, even though the re are also people who strongly oppose it. The following articles examine questions and answers about issues on euthanasia or assisted suicide. The articles are â€Å"In Defense of Voluntary Euthanasia† by SidneyRead MoreShould Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide Be Legalized?825 Words   |  4 PagesJames Alexander November 27 2011 PHI-105 Professor Sanejo Leonard Should Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide be Legalized? Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide should become legal in the United States and all US territories. Though Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide are not the same and are separate acts, they both serve the same purpose, which is to follow the desire of a person with terminal illness to end their life without legal consequences. This same right should extend to family members and guardiansRead MoreDefending Euthanasia Essay1034 Words   |  5 Pagesand co-edited a number of books and newspaper articles opposing the use of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide and who also is the Samuel Gale Professor of Law, Professor in the Faculty of Medicine, and Founding Director of the Centre for Medicine, Ethics, and Law at McGill University, Montreal, wrote the internet article titled â€Å"Against Euthanasia.† In the article Somerville blatantly states that any type of euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide is completely and totally wrong under all circumstances

Sunday, December 29, 2019

Hannah Montana Played By The Actress And Artist, Miley Cyrus

Wherever I Go is a song written for a TV show called Hannah Montana played by the actress and artist, Miley Cyrus. It was played on the last episode of the fourth season where the best of friends Lily and Miley end up separating to live their own lives. The episode illustrated the hard difficulties the two characters had to go through in order to come to a final decision regarding their future. Miley, playing as Hannah Montana landed a movie role that was shooting in Paris, while her best friend Lily dreamed of finally going off to college. The first part viewed was about Miley going along with Lily on a college trip knowing and keeping a secret from her that she landed a role in a movie that would shoot in Paris. As Miley finally confesses, Lily becomes upset that she kept this from her and would mean she will not be able to join her in attending college. In the second part of the episode, Miley came up with a solution of bringing along Lily with her to Paris. As Lilly did not want to be separated from her best friend, she says yes to go along with her to Paris. Last minute when it is time for them to depart from the airport, Lily’s boyfriend one last time convinces her to do the right thing and fulfill her dream of going to college. As the episode ends, Lily comes to a final conclusion that she will attend college instead. Miley and Lily know that they are no longer able to spend every minute together like they always do as they must carry on their own responsibilities.Show MoreRelatedCyrus : Father s Record Company1240 Words   |  5 Pages Cyrus was born on November 23, 1992, in Franklin, Tennessee, a suburb of Nashville, to Letitia Jean Tish (Finley) Cyrus and country singer Billy Ray Cyrus.[3] She grew up on a 500-acre (200 ha) farm in Franklin.[4] Her birth name, Destiny Hope, was derived from her parents belief that she would accomplish great things, and she was given the nickname Smiley, later shortened to Miley, because she often smiled as an infant.[5] She officially changed her name to Miley Ray Cyrus in 2008; her

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Decision Support Tool For Dynamic Job Shop Scheduling

DECISION SUPPORT TOOL FOR DYNAMIC JOB SHOP SCHEDULING ATIKAH BINTI SELAMAT (FA12015) SUPERVISOR: DR. MUCHAMAD OKTAVIANDARI TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGES CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background 1.2 Problem Statement 1.3 Objectives 1.4 Scope of Research 2 3 3 3 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction 2.1.1 Job Shop Production 2.1.2 Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) 2.1.3 Dynamic Job Shop Scheduling Problem (DJJSP) 2.2 Previous Research on Job Shop Scheduling 2.2.1 Job Shop Scheduling 2.2.2 Approach and Method 2.2.3 Performance Measures 2.2.4 Problem Size 2.2.5 Simulation Tools 2.2.6 Simulation Results 2.3 Company Background 4 4 4 5 6 6 6 7 8 9 9 10 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Methodology Flowchart 3.2 Data Collection 3.2.1 Tools and Equipment for Data Collection 3.2.2 Job Data 3.3 Assumptions made in the research 3.4 Optimizing the scheduling 11 13 13 13 14 14 GANTT CHART REFERENCES 15 16 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Scheduling is an important tool in manufacturing and engineering, where it can have a major impact on the productivity of a process (Min et al., 2009). In real production floor, scheduling is a continuously reactive process which face suddenly or unexpected any new events. In manufacturing, the production mostly relate to the processing time, costs and quality. Scheduling plays important role in raising the efficiency of any production system. Nowadays, many approaches have been developed to resolve the real time events problem.Show MoreRelatedEssay on Effective Inventory Management Process is Vital to Business3211 Words   |  13 Pagestraining to employees to involve them in inventory related decision-making, specifying the responsibilities of employees leading to greater accountability, etc. could be some steps towards upgrading the skills of these important agents in the process. All favourable characteristics of employees support an effective inventory management. Being well trained employees provides them with the skills to solve problems easily and to do their jobs in an effective and timely manner. 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Thursday, December 12, 2019

Effective Business Communication Quinn Management †Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Business Communication Quinn Management. Answer: Introduction The purpose of the study paper is to assess the personal capabilities of the individuals leading towards effective communication. By using a range of diagnostic tools related to communication i.e. the Johari Window, Assertiveness Questionnaires, QuinnManagement Questionnaires, emotional intelligence test, and Communication Style Questionnaires have been taken into account to analyse the verbal communication skills, active listening skills and non-verbal communication skills of individuals. By using the strategy, the study has helped to evaluate the key communication challenges within my personal communication and the ways to improve the skills (Bednar, 2008). Also, the study presents a review of past literature and theoretical concepts to develop effective communication practices. Lastly, an action plan has been developed for the next six months that will be helpful for me to acquire skills, competencies, and behavioural knowledge. Diagnosis and Reflection: Self-assessment of personal communication style In order to define the self-assessment of verbal and non-verbal communication skills and active listening skills, I have utilised five diagnostic tools related to communication i.e. the Johari Window, Assertiveness Questionnaires, QuinnManagement Questionnaires, emotional intelligence test, and Communication Style Questionnaires. By using the Johari Window model, efficient communication and understanding can be developed among the team members (Harvell, 2016). The model has encouraged the members to created trust by disclosing personal information with each other. I have identified that during the group activities, verbal communication skills have been a leading strength for my character. I can influence the people through by verbal arguments in a significant way. Similarly, the Assertiveness Questionnaires and Communication Style Questionnaires have evaluated my fundamental strengths and weaknesses in communication. Through the analysis, I have determined that I am a kind of intuiti ve communicator who likes to think in the broader perspective. I establish communication on the basis of evidence and maintain a linear order during conversations. On the other hand, the QuinnManagement Questionnaires and emotional intelligence test model have been assessed to determine the leadership style within my communication strategy. The score of the model is satisfactory, to say the least. Precisely, I do not make decisions easily until I am satisfied with the answers. Before jumping into the conclusion, I tend to use my active learning skills to understand the point of view of the speaker. Therefore, I think that I am a good listener as well. However, the results of the model and communication tools have mostly indicated that my non-verbal communication and behavioural aspects need to be improved in a substantial way. Precisely, behavioural elements can be identified as the major aspects of non-verbal communication. According to the communication tools and models, my body language, pitch, the speed of communication, and facial gestures are not satisfactory (Bednar, 2008). Due to my approaches, sometimes listeners can think that I am a type of arrogant person. Therefore, I need to ensure my gestures, expressions, and body language will be improved to influence the impact of non-verbal communication. Key communication challenges that need to be improved According to the findings of the communication tools and models, I think that language barrier and lack of feedback can be identified as the two major communication issues in my communication strategy (Gargiulo, 2014). Precisely, during communication with different types of people, limited linguistic knowledge has posed a substantial problem for me. Therefore, sometimes linguistic barriers can affect my personal communication efficiency. Besides, the issue has led to slow communication with the people. In addition, such linguistic issue can create misunderstanding at times that has led to ineffective communication. On the other hand, lack of feedback can be defined as another significant challenge to my personal communication skills. Most of the time, I have been engaged with one-way communication that has resulted in effective communication. Meanwhile, I need to encourage others to deliver feedback about my ways of exchanging information and knowledge sharing (Bishop, 2017). Reflection of professional interactions In the recent twelve months or so, I had two professional interactions that led me to identify the communication challenges to be improved from a broader perspective. First of all, I have been engaged in a team assignment that requires significant communication development. In the group assignment, there are four team members and a group leader. In terms of communication, I have discovered that my linguistic barriers have created issues to understand different perspective during the collection of data. As a result of the same, I had misinterpreted some of the data. During interaction with different kind of people, limited linguistic and cultural knowledge had caused problems to understand my team members. During meetings and assignment related seminars, different aspects and cultural attributes were included that had been beyond my reach. I had found things really tough at times. In another professional interaction, I have participated in a training and career development programme that demand effective two-way communication. I have found that during the training sessions I have lacked the confidence to ask about different things regarding training. My verbal and non-verbal communication tactics were not up to the mark to influence others. As a result of the scenario, I have failed to be engaged with other participants (Park, Ko, 2015). Similarly, linguistic barriers have also affected my communication strategies, to say the least. Due to lack of diversified linguistic as well as cultural knowledge, I have failed to apply myself to impress others. However, my body language and facial expressions have managed to control the issues to a certain amount. Based on the two professional interactions, I think that I need to improve my communication skills mitigating the issues of linguistic barriers and lack of feedback. The communication models and tools have been utilised to identify what are the missing links affecting my communication skills. Alternatively, the professional interactions have also pointed out that I need to improve my personal communication skills to influence others. In professional interactions, fluency of speaking can be identified as one of the crucial supporting factors (Klein, Chen, Haney, 2010). Herein, my linguistic barriers have limited my competencies to be displayed in front of the others. Based on the diagnosis, it is evident that I need to work on my communication skills. I need to learn different languages so that the linguistic barriers in communication can be resolved. Furthermore, I must establish two-way communication during personal interactions to influence others thoughts as well. Literature Review The entire diagnosis and reflection have been pointed out two major challenges in setting up communication as far as my personal skills are concerned. In this particular section, theoretical concepts, behavioural factors, and previous literature on this topic have been taken into account to identify the best practices to be considered. Zelizer (2015) reviews how communication theory has played a leading to improve the standards of communication and interpersonal interactions. According to the author, modern communication practices must be effectively utilised in the professional level to influence others. Based on the research of the author, effective analytical skills, critical thinking skills, and reading skills can improve the strategies of professionals during interpersonal interactions. The communication theory technique increases the competencies and knowledge of a person adding proficiency in communication style (Bellos, 2009). Understandably, linguistic barriers can be defined as one of the major challenges for me in developing effective communication. Netten, van Someren (2011) have identified how effective communication strategies can drive the success of an entire communication process. According to the authors, by adopting broader knowledge and theoretical concepts, a professional can reduce the issues related to linguistic as well as cultural barriers. Preferably, suitable reading and learning of different languages can solve the issue in a comprehensive way. Alternatively, Osborn, Motley (2009) have defined the role of improving communication in personal and professional efficiency. In order to deal with the issues of cross-cultural differences and linguistic challenges in communication, professional training and development courses can be ideal for learning different cultures as well as languages. Thus, through the identification of different cultural aspects and languages can improve the overall efficiency during cross-border communication (Osborn, Motley, 2009). Invariably, the issue of the lack of feedback during communication must be handled in an effective way defining the theoretical aspects. Hynes (2012) evaluates that the role of most of the communication strategies can be improved if right measures can be applied. For instance, during a conversation, one-way communication should be avoided. A speaker must provide an equal chance to others so that a two-way communication channel can be set. Thus, the overall efficiency of the communication can be improved. On this note, Robinson (2010) investigates howmanagement strategy can be influenced by improving substantial communication channels. Meanwhile, continuous feedback from others can improve the success rate of communication strategies. Meanwhile, Kinnick (2015) evaluates the role of communication skills leading towards efficiency of a professional. Precisely, communication skills must be improved through identifying the challenges and solving the problems. Apparently, there are certain behavioural aspects that can improve the communication practices. For instance, effective reading skills, learning skills, writing skills, and verbal as well as non-verbal communication skills can increase the potential competencies of an individual. Jewitt (2013) identifies how learning skills and communication styles are interlinked with each other. Decisively, effective interpersonal skills such as actives learning skills and listening skills of an individual can deliver efficient communication ways leading to success. In terms of modern day communication challenges, identifying the issues can be evident. Precisely, as linguistic barriers and lack of feedback have been considered as the leading challenges in communication development in the study, substantial behavioural approaches such as interpersonal skills must be taken into consideration to improve the communication practices. First of all, different types of communication skills such as reading skills, writing skills, active listening skills, verbal skills and non-verbal communication skills must be developed to improve the entire communication strategy of an individual. Meanwhile, Bryant (2014) has defined how to deal with the modern day communication challenges by improving the interpersonal skills. According to the concept of Bryant (2014), an individual must learn to be an active listener to improve the communication system. In order to control the issue of cultural and linguistic diversity in communication, active listening can help out an individual to improve interactions. Sometime, non-verbal communication techniques such as body language of the speaker, attitude, facial expression, and assertiveness can improve the outcome of the interaction. Such positive non-verbal communication skills can encourage two-way interaction. On a broader perspective, Zhou (2015) has argued the strategic interventions required in communication set up. Evidently, a cooperative environment must be created promoting togetherness. Such effective environment can increase knowledge sharing that can lead to effective communication. On the other hand, Smart (2016) has reviewed the importance of developing interpersonal skills to enhance communication skills in an individuals personal trait. Fundamentally, collaborative nature can develop a great communicator, to say the least. It is the intensity of a person that encourages effective communication. In context to the current scenario, effective interpersonal skills and knowledge sharing attributes will be evident to overcome communication issues identified in the diagnosis and reflection study. Moreover, engagement with the associates can improve the communication skills of an individual reducing the linguistic barriers (Bellos, 2009). Besides, the fluency of speaking and effective two-way communication can increase the chances of active communication. Based on the theoretical aspects and behavioural concepts, active listening and elements of non-verbal communication must be taken into account to deal with the additional challenges in communication (Netten, van Someren, 2011). Action Plan In order to improve the interpersonal communication skill, identifying the problems and solving methods will not be enough to deal with the entire situation. Effective action plan must be developed to improve the personal communication skills of an individual. On the basis of the entire reflection and diagnosis as well as the review of previous literature, I need to set specific targets and goals in a six-month action plan to improve the current condition. Precisely, assessment of the issues and suitable actions must be taken into account to progress in the professional communication (Gargiulo, 2014). In the underlying section, the identified action plan has included actions such as indentify mentor, undertake short communication course and advanced communication course, reading activities, maintaining personal journal, and self-assessment of the improvement to build substantial competencies enhancing communication strategies. Invariably, a Gantt chart has been developed to identify the timeline suitable for the personal development plan. Personal Development Plan Actions or activities Why the action needed for development of communication skills? What resources or assistance is needed? Measures to know the achievement of goals Timeline Identify Mentor By identifying the mentor for improving communication, individuals can get a role model to set communication goals and objectives Through the identification of mentors such as University Instructor or a famous communicatior supportive for individual development plan, I can learn interpersonal communication skills and theoretical concepts It is important to complete the entire activity within the set deadline 1 Month Undertake Short Course Short corporate communication courses can increase the standard of communication according to the contemporary set up Short communication courses such as leadership communication course, corporate governance course, executive communication course, and intercultural competency based certification course must be taken into account Effective course feedback and improvement in knowledge and communication standards must be reviewed (Bishop, 2017) 3 Months Undertake Advanced Post Graduate Communication Course Advanced communication courses can improve listening activities, fluency in languages, and unexpected potency in personal traits Advanced post graduate communication course under the supervision of renowned university can unleash splendid communication style and approach It will be important to score high distinction in the course to improve the skills and competencies 6 Months Reading Activities Reading activities can improve the knowledge and competency of individuals Books such as Skill with People by Les Giblin, The Definitive Book of Body Language by Barbara and Allan Pease, Just Listen: Discover the secret to Getting Through to Absolute Anyone by Mark Goulston must be recommended for improving reading skills Effective theoretical concepts and application of knowledge must be evaluated to clarify the success (Gargiulo, 2014) 6 Months Maintain Personal Journal on communication The action is required to note down the learning process and increase writing skills Personal journals must be represented to draw the effective communication skills and non-verbal communication elements learnt through the entire process of individual development plan Enhancement in the communication strategies must be overviewed to identify the success 6 Months Self Reflection Self-assessment and self-reflection must be conducted to review the progress Proper guidance from the professionals and instructors must be required Feedback must be considered to achieve the targeted communication standards After every 2 month Gantt chart The Gantt chart for the action plan to develop personal communication skills have been presented herein below: Gantt Chart Actions or activities Timeline Months 1 2 3 4 5 6 Identify Mentor 1 Month Undertake Short Course 3 Months Undertake Advanced Post Graduate Communication Course 6 Months Reading Activities 6 Months Maintain Personal Journal on communication 4 Months Self Reflection After every 2 Months It can be seen from the above figure that the necessary actions are to be taken within next six months to improve my communication skills. First of all, one month has been invested to indentify the suitable mentor affecting the communication strategies. Alternatively, by undertaking short communication courses for three months, the overall communication standards can be improved. Also, advanced post graduate communication courses for six months from reputed university can enhance latest communication techniques supportive for professional life. Apart from that, suitable reading activities must be taken into account for the entire six months. Meanwhile, for the last four months, it will be important to maintain personal journals reflecting on communication interactions. Conclusion Through the entire discussion and analysis, it can be said that interpersonal skills must be improved to increase the potentiality of communication. By identifying the challenges affecting personal communication through self-assessment, it is important to set action plans to improve the communication status. 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